Effect of Pseudomonas fluorescens and pyoverdine on the phytoextraction of cesium by red clover in soil pots and hydroponics

Research areas:
Year:
2018
Authors:
Journal:
Environmental Science and Pollution Research
Volume:
25
Number:
21
Pages:
20680-20690
Month:
July
ISSN:
1614-7499
BibTex:
Abstract:
With the aim of improving the phytoextraction rate of cesium (Cs), the effect of Pseudomonas fluorescens ATCC 17400 and its siderophore pyoverdine (PVD) on the uptake of Cs by red clover was studied in soil pots. This work also provides a mechanistic understanding of the Cs-bacteria (or PVD)-illite-plant interactions by using a simplified experimental design, i.e., hydroponics with either Cs in solution or Cs-spiked illite in suspension. For soil spiked with 11.2 mmol kg−1 (1480 mg kg−1) of Cs, 0.43{\%} of total Cs was taken up by red clover in 12 days (119 $\mu$mol g−1 (16 mg g−1) of Cs dry matter in roots and 40 $\mu$mol g−1 (5 mg g−1) in shoots). In hydroponics with Cs in solution (0.1 mmol L−1 or 13 mg L−1), 75{\%} of Cs was taken up vs. only 0.86{\%} with Cs-spiked illite suspension. P. fluorescens and PVD did not increase Cs concentrations in aboveground parts and roots of red clover and even decreased them. The damaging effect of PVD on red clover growth was demonstrated with the biomass yielding 66{\%} of the control in soil pots (and 100{\%} mortality after 12 days of exposition) and only 56{\%} in hydroponics (78{\%} with illite in suspension). Nonetheless, PVD and, to a lesser extent, P. fluorescens increased the translocation factor up to a factor of 2.8. This study clearly showed a direct damaging effect of PVD and to a lower extent the retention of Cs by biofilm covering both the roots and illite, both resulting in the lower phytoextraction efficiency.