Gabriel TOBIE

Chargé de Recherche au CNRS / CNRS Researcher

LPG, UMR-CNRS 6112, Univ. Nantes

2, rue de la Houssinière, BP 92208,

44322 NANTES Cedex, FRANCE

Building 4, office 46

Phone : +33 (0)276645161

E-mail :

 GTobie 2014 Banyuls




For an introduction to the icy moons and to my research activities, please follow this link.


Model Sat Glace 


Expe Sat Glace


Obs Sat Glace

1- Impact of tidal interactions on the evolution of moons and planets.

  • Coupling thermal convection and tidal dissipation in 2D and 3D geometry (Enceladus, Europa, Titan, short-period exoplanets).
  • Coupling thermal evolution, rotation and orbital evolution of different planetary objects   (Titan, Iapetus etc.)

2- Chemical exchanges on water-rich worlds: from icy moons to ocean-planets.

  • Stability and transport of gas in water-rich interiors:  role of clathration.
  • Coupled evolution of the atmosphere and interior of Titan and ocean-planets.

3- Interpretation of data gathered by the Cassini-Huygens mission:

  •  Interpretation of topographic and gravimetric data for the interior of Titan.
  •  Interpretation of the composition of Titan's atmosphere.
  •  Methane cycle on Titan: cloud distribution and lake formation





chemical EXchanges On WATER-rich worlds: experimentation and modeling





  • 2010 - present : Member of the Scientific Counsil of "Programme National de Planétologie - INSU"
  • 2011 - present : PI of the ERC EXOWATER project (Starting Grants, 2011-2015)
  • 2012 - present: Co-I for the 3GM instrument of the ESA JUICE mission
  • 2012 - present: Team Member for the MAJIS instrument of the ESA JUICE mission
  • 2013 : Coordinator/Spokesperson for the White Paper on the future exploration of Titan and Enceladus in response to the ESA call for the definition of the science theme of the future large-class missions (L2/L3)



  • Behounkova, M.; Tobie, G.; Cadek, O.; Choblet, G.; Porco, C.; Nimmo, F. 2015. Timing of water plume eruptions on Enceladus explained by interior viscosity structure, Nature Geosciences, 8, 601-604.
  • Marounina, N.; Tobie, G.; Carpy, S. ; Monteux, J. ; Charnay, B. ; Grasset, O. 2015. Evolution of Titan’s atmosphere during the Late Heavy Bombardment, Icarus, 257, 324-335.
  • Kuchta, M.; Tobie, G.; Miljkovic, K. ; Běhounková, M. ; Soucek, O. ; Choblet, G.; Cadek, O. 2015. Despinning and shape evolution of Saturn’s moon Iapetus triggered by a giant impact, Icarus, 252, 454-465 (pdf).
  • Monteux, J. ; Amit, H. ; Choblet, G.; Langlais, B. ; Tobie, G. 2015. Giant impacts, heterogeneous mantle heating and a past hemispheric dynamo on Mars, Icarus, 240, p.114-124 (pdf).
  • Tobie G. 2015. Planetary science : Enceladus’ hot springs, Nature, 519, 162-163 (pdf).
  • Arridge, C. and 113 coauthors including G. Tobie 2014. The science case for an orbital mission to Uranus: Exploring the origins and evolution of ice giant planets, Planet. Space Sci., 104, 122-140 (pdf).
  • Mitri G. and 16 coauthors including G. Tobie 2014. The exploration of Titan with an orbiter and a lake probe. Planet. Space Sci., 104, 78-92 (pdf).
  • Tobie G. and 30 coauthors 2014.  Science goals and mission concept for the future exploration of Titan and Enceladus, Planet. Space Sci., 104, 59-77 (pdf).
  • Charnay, B.; Forget, F.; Tobie, G.; Sotin, C.; Wordsworth, R. 2014. Titan's past and future: 3D modeling of a pure nitrogen atmosphere and geological implications, Icarus, 241, 269-279 (pdf).
  • Monteux, J.; Tobie, G.; Choblet, G.; Le Feuvre, M. 2014. Can large icy moons accrete undifferentiated? Icarus, 237, 377-387 (pdf).
  • Baland, R.-M.; Tobie, G.; Lefèvre, A.; Van Hoolst, T. 2014. Titan's internal structure inferred from its gravity field, shape, and rotation state, Icarus, 237, 29-41(pdf).
  • Lefèvre, A.; Tobie, G.; Choblet, G.; Cadek, O. 2014. Structure and dynamics of Titan's outer icy shell constrained from Cassini data, Icarus, 237, 16-28 (pdf).
  • Mitri, G.; Meriggiola, R.; Hayes, A.; Lefevre, A.; Tobie, G.; Genova, A.; Lunine, J. I.; Zebker, H. 2014. Shape, topography, gravity anomalies and tidal deformation of Titan, Icarus, 236, 169-177 (pdf).
  • Bezacier, L.; Le Menn, E.; Grasset, O.; Bollengier, O.; Oancea, A.; Mezouar, M.; Tobie, G. 2014. Experimental investigation of methane hydrates dissociation up to 5 GPa: Implications for Titan's interior, Phys. Earth Planet. Int., 229, 144-152 (pdf).
  • Kalousová, K.; Soucek, O.; Tobie, G.; Choblet, G.; Cadek, O. 2014. Ice melting and downward transport of meltwater by two-phase flow in Europa's ice shell, J.  Geophys. Res., 119, 532-549 (pdf).
  • Tobie, G.; Lunine, J.I.; Monteux, J. ; Mousis, O. and Nimmo, F., 2013. The origin and evolution of Titan. In: G. Müller-Wodarg, Lellouch & Cravens (Editor), Titan: Interior, Surface, Atmosphere and Space Environment. Cambridge University Press, pp. 24-55.
  • Tobie, G.; Lunine, J.I.; Monteux, J. ; Mousis, O. and Nimmo, F., 2014. The origin and evolution of Titan. In: G. Müller-Wodarg, Lellouch & Cravens (Editor), Titan: Interior, Surface, Atmosphere and Space Environment. Cambridge University Press, pp. 24-55.
  • Griffith, C. A.; Mitchell, J. L.; Lavvas, P.; Tobie, G. 2013. Titan's Evolving Climate, in Comparative Climatology of Terrestrial Planets, S. J. Mackwell, A. A. Simon-Miller, J. W. Harder, and M. A. Bullock (eds.), University of Arizona Press, Tucson, 610 pp., p.91-119
  • Choukroun, M.; Kieffer, S. W.; Lu, X.; Tobie, G. 2013. Clathrate Hydrates: Implications for Exchange Processes in the Outer Solar System, in The Science of Solar System Ices, Astrophysics and Space Science Library, Volume 356. ISBN 978-1-4614-3075-9. Springer Science+Business Media New York, 2013, p. 409.
  • Behounková, M.; Tobie, G.; Choblet, G.; Cadek, O. 2013. Impact of tidal heating on the onset of convection in Enceladus's ice shell, Icarus, Vol. 226, pp. 898-904 (pdf).
  • Bollengier, O.; Choukroun, M.; Grasset, O.; Le Menn, E.; Bellino, G.; Morizet, Y; Bezacier, L.; Oancea, A.; Taffin, C. ; Tobie, G. 2013. Phase equilibria in the H2O–CO2 system between 250–330 K and 0–1.7 GPa: Stability of the CO2 hydrates and H2O-ice VI at CO2 saturation. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 119, 322–339 (pdf).
  • Oancea, A.; Grasset, O.; Le Menn, E.; Bollengier, O.; Bezacier, L.; Le Mouélic, S.; Tobie, G. 2012. Laboratory infrared reflection spectrum of carbon dioxide clathrate hydrates for astrophysical remote sensing applications, Icarus, 221, 900-910 (pdf).
  • Behounková, M.; Tobie, G.; Choblet, G.; Cadek, O. 2012. Tidally-induced melting events as the origin of south-pole activity on Enceladus,  Icarus, 219, 655-664 (pdf).
  • Tobie, G; Gautier G.; Hersant F. 2012. Titan's Bulk Composition Constrained by Cassini-Huygens: Implication for Internal Outgassing, The Astrophysical Journal, 752, article id. 125 (pdf).
  • Lainey, V.; Karatekin, Ö.; Desmars, J.; Charnoz, S.; Arlot, J.-E.; Emelyanov, N.; Le Poncin-Lafitte, C.; Mathis, S.; Remus, F.; Tobie, G.; Zahn, J.-P. 2012. Strong Tidal Dissipation in Saturn and Constraints on Enceladus' Thermal State from Astrometry, The Astrophysical Journal, 752,  article id. 14.
  • Cornet, T.; Bourgeois, O.; Le Mouélic, S.; Rodriguez, S.; Lopez Gonzalez, T.; Sotin, C.; Tobie, G.; Fleurant, C.; Barnes, J. W.; Brown, R. H.; and 4 coauthors 2012. Geomorphological significance of Ontario Lacus on Titan: Integrated interpretation of Cassini VIMS, ISS and RADAR data and comparison with the Etosha Pan (Namibia), Icarus, 218, 788-806 (pdf).
  • Arridge, C. S.; Agnor, C. B.; André, N.; Baines, K. H.; Fletcher, L. N.; Gautier, D.; Hofstadter, M. D.; Jones, G. H.; Lamy, L.; Langevin, Y.; Mousis, O.; Nettelmann, N.; Russell, C. T.; Stallard, T.; Tiscareno, M. S.; Tobie, G. and the Uranus Pathfinder consortium 2012. Uranus Pathfinder: exploring the origins and evolution of Ice Giant planets, Experimental Astronomy, 33, 753-791 (pdf).
  • Han, L.; Tobie, G.; Showman, A. P. 2012. The impact of a weak south pole on thermal convection in Enceladus' ice shell, Icarus, 218, 320-330 (pdf).
  • Le Mouélic, S.; Rannou, P.; Rodriguez, S.; Sotin, C.; Griffith, C. A.; Le Corre, L.; Barnes, J. W.; Brown, R. H.; Baines, K. H.; Buratti, B. J.; Clark, R. N.; Nicholson, P. D.; Tobie, G. 2012. Dissipation of Titan's north polar cloud at northern spring equinox, Planetary and Space Science, 60, 86-92 (pdf).
  • Charnoz, S.; Crida, A.; Castillo-Rogez, J. C.; Lainey, V.; Dones, L.; Karatekin, Ö.; Tobie, G.; Mathis, S.; Le Poncin-Lafitte, C.; Salmon, J. 2011. Accretion of Saturn's mid-sized moons during the viscous spreading of young massive rings: Solving the paradox of silicate-poor rings versus silicate-rich moons, Icarus, 216, 535-550 (pdf).
  • Behounková, M.; Tobie, G.; Choblet, G.; Cadek, O. 2011. Tidally induced thermal runaways on extrasolar Earths: Impact on habitability, The Astrophysical journal, 728:89, doi:10.1088/0004-637X/728/2/89 (pdf).
  • Behounková, M.; Tobie, G.; Choblet, G.; Cadek, O. 2010. Coupling mantle convection and tidal dissipation: applications to Enceladus and Earth-like planets, J. Geophys. Res.,115, CiteID E09011, doi:10.1029/2009JE003564 (pdf)
  • Robuchon, G.; Choblet, G.; Tobie, G.; Cadek, O; Sotin, C.; Grasset, O. 2010. Coupling of thermal evolution and despinning of early Iapetus, Icarus, 207, 959-971 (pdf)
  • Choukroun, M.; Grasset, O.; Tobie, G.; Sotin, C. 2010. Stability of methane clathrate hydrates under pressure: Influence on outgassing processes of methane on Titan, Icarus205, 581-593 (pdf)
  • Hussmann, H.; Choblet, G.; Lainey, V.; Matson, D. L.; Sotin, C.; Tobie, G.; van Hoolst, T. 2010. Implications of rotation, orbital states, energy sources,and heat transport for internal processes on icy satellites, Space Science Reviews, 153, 317-348 (pdf)
  • Schubert, G.; Hussmann, H.; Lainey, V.; Matson, D. L.; McKinnon W. B.; Sohl, F.; Sotin, C.; Tobie, G.; Turrini, D.;van Hoolst, T. 2010. Evolution of icy satellites, Space Science Reviews, 153, 447-484 (pdf)
  • Tobie, G.; Giese, B.; Hurford, T.A.; Lopes R. M.; Nimmo, F.; Postberg, F.; Retherford, K. D.; Schmidt, J.; Spencer, J. R.; Tokano, T.; Turtle, E. P. 2010. Surface, subsurface and atmosphere exchanges on the satellites of the outer Solar System, Space Science Reviews, 153, 375-410 (pdf).