PhD defense

plante

Dorine BOUQUET

"In situ management of allotment gardens soil moderately contaminated by lead"

13th of March 2018 - Amphitheater Pasteur - Faculty of Sciences and Technology - University of Nantes


 

 Abstract : "Soil quality is of concern regarding the development of urban allotments gardens. Although lead (Pb) is poorly available in the soil, some vegetables can accumulate it above maximum permitted concentrations. This study focuses on the development of methods for the in situ sustainable management of allotment garden soils moderately Pb-contaminated (200 mg/kg DM), including the phytoextraction option. The first option, in situ assessed on allotment gardens, combines the phytoextraction using Brassica juncea and the cultivation of metal-excluder vegetables, allowing the crop production during the soil clean-up. Tomato, cabbage, potato tubers, leek and green bean were cultivated either in a crop rotation or co-cropped with B. juncea (vs. only vegetables). The harvested vegetables are indeed Pb-excluders. Due to a low soil Pb availability (geogenic Pb), Pb phytoextraction was inefficient (max. 2 mg Pb/kg). The second option, tested at the bench scale, aims to increase the phytoextraction by adding chelates, either organic chemicals (i.e. EDTA) or via a bacterial inoculum (bioaugmentation) notably selected based on its siderophore production, into the soil. Extraction potential of B. juncea and Lycopersicon esculentum was evaluated in hydroponics with a Pb exposure similar to the DTPA extracted fraction. Shoot Pb concentration for L. esculentum cv. « Marmande » (max. 2000 mg/kg) was 20 to 100 times higher than for B. juncea (max. 45 mg/kg) reaching the threshold value for Pb hyperaccumulator. EDTA addition into the soil confirmed the high extraction potential of tomato when Pb availability is increased (114 to 615 mg/kg; anthropogenic or geogenic Pb). However, use of the bioaugmentation was not conclusive."